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Gaur's track in Cat Tien National Park

Beekman J.H., Prins H.H.T. 1989
Feeding strategies of sedentary large herbivores in East Africa, with emphasis on the African buffalo, Syncerus caffer.
Afr. J. Ecol. 27: 129-147

A comparison of the feeding strategy of four large herbivores-buffalo, wildebeest, Burchell's zebra and elephant-was carried out in Lake Manyara National Park, Tanzania. It appears that, especially during the dry season, elephant are time-limited and, presumably to alleviate a shortage in energy intake, switch from grazing to browsing. Zebra and wildebeest show very high grazing times during the day and have very little resting time during the dry season. If these two species are time-limited at that time of the year, it appears to be due to predation risk at night. Buffalo are not time-limited, and show tow foraging strategies; namely, an option in which they emphasize bulk feeding, and one in which selection is stressed. They appear to be resource-limited. All four species show a remarkable correspondence in the proportion of time they spend on food collection. On a yearly basis, the amount of time spent on foraging plus moving approximates to 80% of their (day) time. Nevertheless, the feeding strategies of these species are different although they inhabit the same environment and face the same sort of shortages.