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Gaur's track in Cat Tien National Park

Kikkawa Y., Yonekawa H., Suzuki H., Amano T. 1997.
Analysis of genetic diversity of domestic water buffaloes and anoas based on variations in the mitochrondrial gene for cytochrome b
Animal Genetics 28: 195-201.

There are two major groups of domestic water buffaloes in East and Southeast Asia : swamp buffaloes and river buffaloes. Genetic diversity among swamp and river buffaloes was studied by DNA sequence analysis of the mitochondrial gene for cytochrome b. The results showed that each of the two groups has mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) with a specific cytochrome b haplotype. The pairwise nucleotide sequence divergence was calculated to be 2-67% between swamp and river buffaloes, suggesting that they might have diverged from the ancestral populationf of Asiatic domestic water buffaloes, approximately 1 million years ago. In addition, the sequences of the same gene from three subspecies of anoa (lowland, mountain and quarles anoa) were determined and compared with that of a domestic water buffalo. The sequence divergence was 1-2% for mountain anoa vs quarles anoa, 3-6% for mountain anoa vs lowland anoa, 3-3% for quarles anoa vs lowland anoa. Moreover, the sequence divergence between water buffaloes and anoas was found to be approximately 3-33%. Our results provide molecular evidence to support the taxonomic classification, namely, that Asiatic buffaloes may be classified into four lineages, swamp buffaloes, river buffaloe, lowland anoa and mountain plus quarles anoa. However, the sequence divergence values among these four groups were lower than the sequence divergence values found in the genus and subgenus levels within the subfamily Bovinae. In particular, in contrast to some proposed taxonomic classifications, our results indicated that mtDNA in the water buffaloes and anoas did not diverge at the genus level.