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Gaur's track in Cat Tien National Park

Heinen J.T. 1993.
Population viability and management recommendations for wild water buffalo Bubalus bubalis in Kosi Tappu Wildlife Reserve, Nepal
Biological Conservation 65:29-34.

Population characteristics, breeding structure, and sources of mortality of wild water buffalo Bubalus bubalis were studied in Kosi Tappu Wildlife Reserve, a small reserve located in the southeastern lowlands of Nepal , during 1987 and 1988. Comparisons with an earlier census indicated that the population was growing over a 12-year time interval. However, observations on the physical nature of the reserve and known seasonal movements of buffalo suggested that the population is not viable for several reasons. Most morality observed during the study took place over the rainy season, suggesting that flooding was the major source; half of the first-year calves disappeared during that time. Because the reserve was subject to extensive flooding during the rains, buffalo regularly left to reside in cane and sugar fields. Hence the reserve did not include the annual home range of any buffalo herds. In addition, thousands of domestic cattle and hundreds of domestic buffalo used the reserve illegally, which posed a risk of disease to wild water buffalo. Management recommendations, including a re-introduction of the species into Royal Chitwan National Park , are made in light of the analysis.

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